Can You Name That Bug?
- The name Staphylococcus originates from the greek “staphylē” meaning “bunch of grapes” and the latin “coccus” meaning “spherical bacterium”
- Staphylococcus sp. are halophilic, meaning they can grow in higher concentrations of salt than many other bacteria.
- Staphylococcus sp. are considered normal flora however, when wounds are present or when the birds are stressed or immunocompromised they can invade causing a local or systemic infection.
- S. aureus is the most pathogenic however other species can also be implicated in clinical cases.
- Lactoballus sp. Are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group (convert sugars to lactic acid)
- They exhibit a mutualistic relationship with their host. Their host supplies nutrients and the microorganism helps protect against invasions from pathogens.
- Different species produce a variety of factors to suppress the growth of pathogens.
- Not only is Lactobacillus a major component of most yogurts, it is also used to produce a variety of fermented foods such as cheese, pickles, and sauerkraut.
Eimeria is a genus of protozoa that causes coccidiosis in poultry.
The Eimeria life cycle includes both an exogenous phase that happens in the environment and an endogenous phase that takes part in the host’s intestines.
Oocysts are shed unsporulated into the environment, sporulate, and can be ingested to infect a host.
Eimeria maxima is often an important precursor to Necrotic Enteritis.
• Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic organism, meaning it requires oxygen but at low levels.
• The ideal temperature for Campylobacter jejuni is 42°C, the same temperature as chickens.
• A small percentage of people infected with Campylobacter jejuni may develop a condition known as Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disorder.
• Campylobacter jejuni is also common in cattle and can infect people who drink unpasteurized milk.
• Clostridium perfringens is a commensal organism in the poultry intestinal tract that colonizes the birds early in life.
• Due to Clostridium’s ability to produce endospores, it can survive harsh conditions. It is often widespread in the environment.
• Clostridium perfringens lacks the ability to produce 13 out of the 20 amino acids. Therefore its growth is enhanced by environments rich in protein. High protein diets, damage to intestinal tissue, or poor digestion of feed in the gut are all situations that can cause an drastic proliferation in Clostridium.
• Clostridium perfringens strains are classified into groups based on their ability to produce various toxins and enzymes associated with disease (Type A-E). Type A is the most dominant in poultry.
• Not all E. coli are pathogens. A subject known as Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are known to cause disease in poultry.
• High levels can be in the environment of the poultry house through shedding of the feces.
• Feces is either ingested or contaminated dust inhaled to cause disease.
• In poultry E. coli causes a disease known as Colibacillosis
• Airsaculitis, cellulitis, pericarditis, perihepatitis, and peritonitis are common outcomes of E. coli infections
• Bacillus subtilis is considered the best studied gram positive bacteria.
• It is used around the world to make different types of fermented food.
• When conditions are unfavorable it can go dormant by forming an endospore where it can withstand harsh conditions.
• Because it is a spore former, when it is not in a spore it is referred to as a “vegetative cell”.
• Bacillus subtilis is known to produce a lot of extracellular enzymes such as amylases and proteases.
• This tolerance to harsh conditions as well as other positive benefits they have in the gut, is why Bacillus subtilis and other members of its genus are often used as probiotics.
• Salmonella sp. Is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S.
• There are actually only two species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori.
• Salmonella enterica is known to be more of a concern in warm-blooded animals around the world, while Salmonella bongori is typically only present in cold-blooded animals such as reptiles.
• There are 6 subspecies and over 2600 serotypes. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Kentucky are all examples of Salmonella serotypes.
• Salmonella Enteritidis is the major concern in the layer industry due to its ability to transfer vertically into the egg (colonize the ovary and be placed in the egg before shell).